- One foot one the ground at a time, feet alternately pass one another - walking
- ditto, axis change of hips - pivot
- One foot one the ground at a time, feet do not pass. Lead leg moves first
- Ditto, read leg moves first
- Both feet on the ground - can only change angle of hips - twisting
- Both feet off ground - jumping (N.B. can land with both feet or
one foot)

The other method of locomotion is shuffling, where the feet do not pass each other.

or step + dragTsugi ashi |
Step with the leg into the direction of travel |
Shift weight slightly and drag the other foot |
Ready for another. |

or drag + stepOkuri ashi |
Drag rear leg into the direction of travel |
Step with the lead leg |

As a comment, the two standard sweeps of *de ashi barai* and *okuri
ashi barai* are
intended to counter someone who is shuffling in resp. *tsugi ashi*
or *okuri ashi*. Other sweeps
are intended for intercepting someone who is walking, pivoting, etc.
Sweeps are to be used in motion, never statically. An easy way to do
this is to practice your footwork drills while your partner sweeps
you. You get to move naturally as does he.

Another fundamental movement is *pivoting*,
which is walking with a change in the axis of the hips. This is often
subsumed under the classical
heading of *kaiten* (literally 'circle' since you move along an
arc), although this is not quite correct. There are two version of it
and they are very different. The
first, called **twisting** has the feet not moving. You rise onto
the balls of your feet and twist your
hips so your *hara* (center of gravity, about where your belt
knot is) points into
another direction. Key point is that
your feet stay on the ground. You then regain your root. The
other version, called
**pivoting** actually moves one leg
while keeping the other as the center of rotation. in which one foot,
the **pivot foot**, remains
in location and the other foot, the **sweeping foot**, moves to a
new location. The pivot foot
is the center of rotation and the heel of that foot comes off slightly
the floor, so that the pivot is on the
ball of the foot. This prevents the knee from suffering torsion, since
the pivot actually occurs at the hip -- if you stay flat-footed your
knee will undergo torque. You
may move the sweeping foot
to the front or rear, called a front or rear pivot, resp. Key for pivot is that is a type of walking
with a change in hip angle, i.e., you are one-legged during a pivot and
a biped during a twist!!! Pivots are excellent for quick
movements offline (again speed cancels root), but don't expect to get
much power. Stylistically we usually prefer to replace a pivot by a
step + twist or twist+step if we need power.

Now we won't be confusing just like everyone
else. Most folks lump twists and pivots together.
People don't make as big a distinction as they should, but we will try
to. If you cannot separate these, you will find that many techniques
simply lose all power mysteriously in the middle of their execution
because you pivot where you should twist.

Pivots may occur up to and including a full 360 degrees. twists can go also go to a maximum of 360 degrees if you start in a kosa dachi and end in one. The 180 degree twist is especially useful. You pivot or twist when you need to change orientation or look around. You should practice scanning (looking around, without a body twist) at the very least with every pivot, and you should actually look, don't just wag your head. This is again aimed at assessing multiple attackers and the area. In such cases remember that you are looking for the biggest threat and that might not be the person closest to you.

All footwork drills should start by having your
hands covering your center line and doing the
appropriate palm changes so that the side that leads has that hand
forward. It is crucial that
after you get comfortable moving, you then run through your footwork
drills using various hand
techniques (escapes, *te kagami*, etc., etc.) so that you get
used to having your upper and
lower body independent. Your feet eventually should being doing
whatever they have to all
by themselves. You want to smarten your periphery.

**Walking the circle.** Click here for a movie.
(This movie shows walking the circle with palm changes and a few S
turns through the middle of
the circle.)
This actually comes from a groovy Chinese martial art called *ba gua*
(also written
*p'a k'ua* by some). *Ba gua* is famous for its fluid and
evasive footwork,
and this is their core drill. The system makes a good complement to *jujutsu*
and one of my first teachers was very good at it. You should walk, that
is to say, stride
as you normally do down the street (heel-toe walking). To move at an
angle, point your toes in the
direction you want to go. The eight directions move from the center of
the circle, while this drill gets you to move on the perimeter. If you
do both types of drills, you should have pretty much
all possibilities covered.

Walking the circle is a deceptively simple drill that has an
enormous payback, so
you should practice this one a lot. I do it most days of the week for
at least a bit. Mark off
a circle who radius is your height. Walk along the perimeter for
several minutes, being sure
that you are in balance. You may switch direction by simply pivoting
180 degrees. Practice these
pivots. Moving in a straight line with root is never a problem with a
little practice, but as soon as
some curvature enters the picture, people lose root. A circle has
constant curvature and therefore
this simple drill lets you practice rooting along a curved path. You
can even do pushing exercises
with a partner as well if you get so inspired.

A very good and simple variation of this is to walk half the circle
then cut an S-shaped path through the middle (ok, *ba gua*
started out as a bunch of Taoist monks walking in a circle for
meditation and this really is tracing a yin-yang symbol on the ground).
The movie
above shows this. If you
started walking, say, clockwise initially, this move will have you
walking counter-clockwise from
your starting point.
When you get back to the point on the circle opposite from the start,
repeat cutting through the middle
of the circle and you will be at your point of origin with the original
orientation. This does several things.
It

- lets you practice tighter turns in the middle,

- lets you do techniques on both sides without having to change directions.

Philosophical/pedagogical digression: Jujutsu has a pretty well worked out system of teaching footwork for moving from the center of the circle to the edge, which mimics most evasive movements against linear attacks. Most advanced counter techniques though move along a circular path -- i.e., along the circumference of the circle. The pedagogy there is less clear cut, but the net effect is strikingly similar ba' gua. Ba' gua's circle drill is a very convenient way to practice this and gives an excellent paradigm for getting the requisite independence of hands ond feet. However, I hasten to point out that this is a single footwork drill that has been adapated for our use and has virtually nothing else to do with ba 'gua, which is a vast and difficult art.

- Simply pivot, step and draw your other
leg. Return to the starting point.

- Step into the direction and pivot the
trailing leg so you stay in
the direction chosen. Return to the starting position by reversing the
movement.

- Pivot first so you are pointed where you
want to go and
*tsugi/okuri ashi*or walk away from the starting point. Reverse the movement to return.

The first pass through the triangle drill. |

**Triangle drill.** Click here for a movie.
Mark out an equialteral triangle. Step at the vertices. In the
pictures,
I've put weights on the floor to show where the triangle vertices are.
Be sure to bring your feet together on
the movement. After each pivot, do a quick turn to scan the area.
You can also just do this as a speed drill omitting the turns to see
how fast you can pivot. Remember that
while this is loads of fun, you are leaving out the important component
of scanning to just
optimize your speed.

The second pass through the triangle drill. |

**Box drill**

You could get carried away and do other polygons, but that's not worth the effort or the mental gymnastics. With both the triangle and box drills, you don't need to do them for speed, although that is fun to practice. The big thing is practicing looking around you. Can't emphasize that enough.

**Pivots and twists on the circle**. This is another fabulous
drill. Twists are quite natural on the
circle and pivots are excellent too. For the twists, do them without
pausing, so you can literally
make a twist as soon as the stepping foot touches the floor. This
little
trick will greatly improve the fluidity of your twists.

D EA and B are shoulder width apart, as are D and E. C is directly in the middle and the distance from A to D is two shoulder widths (can be a bit more if you like a challenge).

C

A B

Now, There are several hopping patterns. Choose a few and do each one 5 times. Time yourself and see if you can't best your own time. These are:

- (Hourglass) Left foot on A, right on B. Hop so both feet are on C, then hop with legs apart to D and E. Reverse the motion, hopping backwards.
- (Hourglass twist) Same as the first one, but when you get to each end, do a 180 degree jump in the air, feet apart. This just keeps you always facing in the direction of travel.
- (Figure 8) Feet together do one side then the other: A - C - D - E - C - B
- (Triangle) Feet apart on A+B hop together on C then back. Also
together on C then apart on D - E.

- (L's) Feet together A - B - E and reverse. Do the other side: B - A - D.
- (M's) Feet together A - D - C - E - B. Reverse.
- (N's) Feet together A - D - C - B - E
- (O's) Feet together A - D - E - B and reverse it.