How the requirements are organized
(Warning – this page is still under construction, but I
decided I'd put off doing it for so long I just had to post
something. Eventually there will be a lot of links here...)
There are 5 major colors under black that we use: white, yellow,
blue (orange in some schools), green, brown. Normally one goes from
one to the other by getting tips. These are pretty much up to the
instructor, and you can also read up on the history
of belt rankings. The times refer to the minimal amount of time
you must be in the previous grade before you should be permitted to
test for the next rank. This may be waived at the instructor's
discretion. Testing fees are simply the cost of the belt. For tips,
you are charged with finding your own duct tape. I do not charge you
for anything else. Of course, I also insist that you actually pass
the test, since I'm not in it for the money....
I am by vocation a teacher (in Mathematics) and am universally
accorded the status of being extremely effective. My system there is
to realize that intensively concentrating on a topic for a period
of time causes people to operate with the concept at a much higher
level than having the same amount of exposure over a much more
extended period. (This has to do with intuition
and learning.) I have attempted to apply this here. So far the
results have been quite encouraging and I have received many a
on how well my students have been prepared. This is the best proof
major goal of breaking things down the way I do is so that when
something is not working in training there is a conceptual framekwork
for debugging it. For example, if you cannot ennunciate how your feet
are moving in
a complex henka chances are
very good you will get stumped when it fails and never be able to
figure out how to get it to work right. That would be a Bad Thing
because you then cannot develop the independence needed to function on
your own. My goal as an instructor is to make you independent of me and
this is a very different goal than most martial artists have. By not
giving you a methodolgy for analysis, but merely having a collection of
techniques, students are rendered always second class citizens in their
own systems, requiring intervention from some higher belt who has
puzzled out a crude analysis on their own to save the day. This
doubtless lets the master feel like, well, a master, but is a disaster
wating to happen to the student in a live fire situation. ("Y'all
can't punch me like that until I ask me teacher what to do...") Now, I
should also make a note about turning lemons to lemonade. As many of
you know, I ended up getting handicapped, got a new experimental hip
and had to extensively rehabilitate myself. This meant that at one
point, well after I had gotten a black belt, I had to literally start
from the beginning and reteach myself everything. The second time
aroung, however, I got to do it from the perspective of being a very
experienced instructor. A problem with very experienced people teaching
neophytes is that they often do not remember how it feels to be
learning something anew. Since I really started over, it wanted to
write this down once and for all, preferring to see it as a golden
opportunity to revamp and vastly improve my teaching, rather than
simple drudgery. In large measure, I have incorporated the way I
rehabilitated myself as the basis for my system of analysis. As a
philosophical point, suffering can really only be given meaning if you
use it to help those around you, otherwise you are just miserable. This
is not to say that the system didn't already have a way to analyze
techniques in place, far from it -- I cannot claim originality --
merely that the specific form here is due to me and had to proceed in
A standard set of testing requirements at most HDR schools is to
a student be able to come up with a certain number of henka for each
level (1, 3, 5, 7 and finally 10 for black) for each principle. This is
and you should be able to pass such a test. I require a bit more and
it organized differently. Let me explain why. I find that the sheer
of such freedom is lost on many lower ranks. They flit from application
to application and never really bother to learn any to more than a
passing technical ability. When test time looms they finally select a
few at the last minute. This persists until close to black belt level
and it is
only in the latter stages of study that a real attempt is made for
excellence on all levels. This is not what instructors want, but it
have observed countless times.
My solution is two-pronged. First, I lay out a standard list of henka
which I insist students learn to technical proficiency. Once learned,
more than welcomed to amend or replace any of it as they see fit but
articulate why they are doing what they do. Secondly, in line with the
on developing intuition about principles, I have intensive requirements
for specific principles. For some time prior to testing, a given
principle is to be applied to everything in sight and specific flow
drills are done to burn this into
the student's central nervous system. Again, this does not mean you you
won't know other
kata, just that I have a method for internalizing specific
Incidentally we use principle but there are several ways to classify
the techniques in jujutsu
and one other common way is by broad category. Read about it here.
The combinations for throwing are suggestions. The idea is merely
to get people to try and perceive common patterns of body movement
when throwing. In practice it may well occur that the opponent zigs
when you zag, as they say. The combinations are to get you to follow
someone and capitalize on their movement. It is easiest to throw
in motion and static throwing is, after all, just a learning tool
to help get the form down.
Ideally, the initial throw in a combination can be
fairly gentle, setting up the second to be effortless. This is much
preferred over simply trying to repeatedly blast uke off his
feet. Especially for a much smaller person, these provide a good way
of setting up a larger person for a throw. Therefore you can think of
these as either being a setup and a throw or a way to followup after
a failed throw.
The counter techniques should not be taken to literally. That is
to say, the initial technique is assumed to be sloppy, giving tori
a chance to counter it. In practice, people with training will make
mistakes under pressure, while those with no training will not be
trying a technique per se but are liable to be doing something
similar enough to allow the counter – there are, after all, only so
many ways to move. These give tori a feeling for how to escape
munged throws and immediately capitalize on the obvious opening. The
best defense against a good throw is, of course, landing correctly
while attempting to actively resist a well executed throw is apt to
be a sadly memorable event.
Finally, the self-defense refers to
specific ways of applying the principles to legally protect
list is pretty dry and does not have such items as
awareness/assertiveness training, de-escalation techniques, legal
discussions and such which are actually the heart of comprehensive
self-defense. I maintain strongly that the physical part of
self-defense is least likely to keep you safe and having to
engage an opponent falls under the heading of trying to keep
disaster from being catastrophe rather heroically saving the day.
We will train these other elements of self-defense, but these are not
a simple reference list. Extraction is the only legally
course of action in all cases since under law you have a retreat
requirement to flee any such situation if it is
possible to do so safely. Think in these terms: you should
count on having to explain to the judge and jury why you could
not have avoided the situation. All that fancy movie stuff
is for the movies. Since our emphasis is on the
practical – so the assumption is you might have to use it rather than
it being a simply interesting technique – most
all the basic curriculum is getting away. Only in 'exceptional
does one actually engage an opponent with the intent of injury.
else legally counts as assault and possibly attempted murder. Later
parts of the
syllablus are concerned with professional uses of force, such
as restraining techniques a law enforcement officer might use. These
are done partly because it is very informative to understand how
traditional techniques have been altered to comply with state or local
law and partly so you can truly appreciate the uses of a martial art
in a civilian society. Most martial arts are at best historical
and just not used for anything in a daily setting.
We are sorely at odds with most martial arts systems in
that ultimately the goal is not just being able
to do the techniques, but being able to perceive when a technique
must be applied, that is to say, objective use of force standards
are at least as important as the actual techniques at a given
level. Said differently the right technique at the wrong time will
put you in jail. A much fuller discussion of this is found on Marc MacYoung's
website and I strongly suggest you read there.
None. This is the color belt a beginner wears, so
everybody is a white belt initially.
distance, structure ("unbendable arm")
Kata:hakko dori (escape through the opening), hakko
zeme (the push, saw)
- koshi nage (major hip throw, aka o goshi),
- kubi nage (around the neck hip throw),
- kubi otoshi (head drop),
- o soto gari (major outside rear reap)
Ukemi: back roll, side fall,
pulls from a kneeling position to a side tap.
Taisabaki: zenkutsu dachi (front stance),
kokutsu dachi (back stance). Pushing drills for stances to hips,
then ribs then shoulders and
finally bent arms to practice hakko zeme. Evading (movement to
3 or 9 o'clock).
- o uchi (palm strike),
- kake geri (toes out stomp),
- hiji uchi (elbow strike),
- metsubishi (smack to the face with a head turn).
Flow drills:Basic outside
parrying sets, switch in basic sets, moving escaping from arm grabs
- Attacker throws a straight punch or cross, defender does standard
parry to outside and flees. Variation allows for an elbow shot to the
attacker and a pull from the rear to floor him.
- Attacker throws a haymaker, defender does hakko zeme + metsubushi
clears arm and extracts. Variation allows for osoto gari if the
attacker is rear weighted, kaiten nage if forward weighted or a
throat poke in place of the strike.
- Attacker throws a haymaker, defender follows it around and does a
kubi otoshi. Note that the defender must be close enough
that the attacker can't really use the other arm.
Pins:overhead ude gatame (arm pin)
- keeping distance
- escaping from arm grabs
- escape from finger chokes
- Stopping a clothing grab by using a body turn
- Getting away from someone after landing from a fall
- Attacker grabs with one hand and rears back for a haymaker with
the other. Defender jams and does o soto gari
Kata:kao ate (face strike kneeling), tachi ate
(strike to neck while standing), hiza gatame (pinning
attacker's arm to knee with a thumb break).
- ippon seoi nage (hip throw grappling an arm),
- kaiten nage (circle throw),
- ko soto gari (small outer reap),
- uki goshi (hip throw when attacker is at your side).
- ippon seoi nage (uke steps back)+ o soto gari,
- kubi nage (uke side steps)+ kubi otoshi
- ko soto gari uke shifts weight to other leg + ko
soto gari to the other leg,
- koshi nage (attacker side-steps) + uki goshi
- uke tries o soto gari (or some high tackle-type movement),
tori jams it with hakko zeme spins out of it and
does kaiten nage
front/back roll flow drill.
Taisabaki:kosa dachi (twisted stance),
kiba dachi (horse stance). Push drills, turning, pivot drills.
Sweeping the lead
foot moving forward or backwards.
Atemi: te katana, foot pins with strikes
Flow drills: Hip throw, adding foot touch to basic atemi drill,
high line and low line in atemi drill,
- First outside strike set, but instead extend the block, return
with a face slap, strike to kidney, trap arm and throw with osoto
- First inside strike set, extend the block to find the attacker's
free hand and restrain it. Elbow strike to ribs followed by a palm heel
to the face and exit to the side of the grappled arm. Variations
include an osoto gari
- Attacker throws an over-committed haymaker to the face, defender
sidesteps away from it and does a kubi otoshi
- Attacker throws a completely over-committed overhand punch,
defender throws in ippon seoi nage
- Attacker grabs a lapel and attempts to strike defender with the
free hand. Defender strikes to defender's free side on the neck (tachi
ate) and grabs head while collaring the reaching arm. Both arms
pull the attacker laterally. If the defender has a leg forward on that
side, sweep it with de ashi barai, otherwise use o soto gari.
Pins:Turn over from back to front using the arm to the face then
pin the arm to the floor at the
side of the body (as in the ending of the shodan osae dori kata).
- Against forearm choke from rear (ippon seoi nage, also
with a drop). This is the case where the attacker is driving you
forward. If he does not have your hips controlled, smack him in the
groin and as soon as his hips move back, throw.
- Against a forearm choke from the rear, where you are being pulled
backwards. Run backwards until he hits something, then throw with ippon
or if he falls, land on him, turning towards the choking side's
shoulder and use a throat poke.
- bear hug - over arm and under arm, front and rear. All of these
defenses are hip throws. If he does not let go during the throw, land
on him, preferably using your elbows.
- Avoiding a stomping.
- Breaking clothing grips by attacking the thumb
Kata:aiki nage, hiki nage
- aiki nage, (blending throw – do it in 8 directions)
- de ashi barai (forward foot sweep)
- ko soto gari (small outer reap)
- sasae tsurikomi ashi (propping the foot throw)
- ko uchi gari (small inside reap)
- o uchi gari (large inside reap)
- uchi mata (thigh sweep with attacker on one knee)
- o uchi gari (uke steps back)+ kubi otoshi
- ko uchi gari uke steps forward and plants his
weight on the swept foot, do ippon seoi nage.
- kubi otoshi, attacker steps forward and plants weight on
the foot, reap that foot with ko uchi gari.
- ko/o uchi gari attacker steps back, while he is stepping
and his weight is on the other foot do o/ko uchi gari,
- ippon seoi nage uke steps forward, placing his
weight on that leg + (k)o uchi gari (which depends on how far
- o soto gari uke steps perpendicular to tori)+
o uchi gari
- from a prop throw or forward foot sweep; uke gets out of
it by dropping to one knee, tori throws in uchi mata
- ko uchi gari + kaiten nage.
- Attacker tries to do a de ashi barai (on the street this
might be some kick to your leg). You shift your weight to the other
foot pick up your foot and do the same sweep on him.
Ukemi:forward roll to tap, front
Taisabaki:sweeping while moving (forward and backwards, plus
zig-zag motion), off-lining, twisting
- Attacker throws a right cross, defender parries and moves into
him, sweeping the front leg with either ko or o uchi gari,
depending on which of defender's legs is in position.
- Attacker throws uppercut, defender parries and moves to outside
throwing either ko soto gari or de ashi barai.
- Attacker throws a haymaker, defender does parry on inside with a
face strike followed by an upward elbow strike to the defender's other
armpit + sasae tsuri komi ashi.
- Attacker does lapel grab + attempt to punch with free hand.
Defender jams attacker's shoulder then moves his head first to one side
then down and finishes with kaiten nage.
Flow drills: Elbow atemi drills.
Aiki nage off-balancing drill, foot sweep flow drills (with
and without throw).
Pins:basic nidan osae dori
- hakko zeme against tackle and the patty-cake drill
- defense against a chicken wing:bend over arm backwards, grab
pants if possible, turn to outside
- against a headlock: collar defender's free arm starting at his
neck, pin and use tani otoshi. Use hakko zeme on floor
to break the grip
- against collar, shoulder grab from 8 directions. Turn using kao
ate then head grab as a takedown. Kneel on neck to hold down or shiko
on face for escape.
Kata:te kagami (standing
- tsuri komi goshi (double arm throw),
- te kagami (hand mirror),
- sukui nage (shoveling throw),
- tani otoshi (valley drop – falling version of the shovel
- okuri ashi harai (trailing foot sweep).
- te kagami, uke comes forward and is bent over + do some koshi
- te kagami, uke is stumbling, so sweep with + de ashi
- te kagami, uke tries to back away, follow then do + kubi
- tsuri komi goshi, uke steps back, sweep his forward foot
with either + ko/ouchi gari, whichever is easiest.
ko uchi gari but the attacker does not have your balance broken,
Counter with a propping throw to his non-sweeping leg.
- ippon seoi nage + tani otoshi
- Against a bad clothing or finger choke + tsuri komi goshi
- ko uchi gari + te kagami (tori side-steps sweep,
pins uke's hand to chest and wraps whole arm to do te kagami)
over, lifting, leading
Ukemi:roll over kneeling
partner, roll over standing partner who is doing te kagami
Atemi:hiza geri or knee strikes, uchi mikazuki geri,
outside crescent kick
- Add knee strikes to previous combos.
- Cross-hand grip. Defender grabs the attacker's wrist and does a te
katana strike while holding on. Attacker is thrown and the followup
is a kick to the ribs or head. Repeat for same-side wrist grab.
- Attacker throws haymaker, defender bats it down using otoshi,
steps under the arm then applies te kagami
- Attacker throws straight punch, defender parries to the inside
and extends block to other hand. Sweep with okuri ashi barai.
- From between attacker's arms, throw a knee strike to his thigh
and immediately reap the other leg with o uchi gari.
- Attacker tries a grab and a kick to the groin, defender blocks
with a crescent kick and uses this to do a te kagami (this is
almost the kata).
Flow drills:flow drills using
elbow and knee strikes. Integrating foot pins into striking.
turning-over flow drills, te kagami flow drill
(positioning and "endless nage")
Pins: te kagami pin,
opponent standing and prone. After a te
kagami, pull up and use it to turn the attacker onto his
- counter to wrist twist (hip throw or sukui nage,
depending on where the defender steps)
- counters to full nelson
- tsuri komi goshi as counter to either a front
finger/clothing choke or double lapel grab and being driven backwards
- te kagami + foot pin counter to a finger choke/clothing
grab + pull
Kata: ushiro zeme otoshi
- soto/uchi maki komi (top of shoulder wrap to the rear or
front from standing),
- hane goshi (springing hip throw),
- harai goshi (hip sweep),
- morote seoi nage (double hand hip throw),
- kata garuma (shoulder wheel, from kneeling),
- morote gari (two hand reap from behind (best) or in front
- ashi garuma (leg wheel)
- de ashi barai, uke picks up foot to avoid sweep and plants
weight on it, sweep that side in harai goshi or ashi garuma
- kubi otoshi, uke steps forward, sweep the stepping foot
with harai goshi
- hane goshi, uke shoots hips back and spreads legs then do ouchi
- (k)ouchi gari, uke picks up legs being swept and plants
weight on the other leg, since you are sideways, do hane goshi
- ippon seoi nage, uke steps out and tries to wrap head +
knee in the face, drop to control kicking leg an do kata garuma
- kata garuma, uke shoots hips back and plants legs wide morote
- harai goshi attacker tries to pull hips far back to
prevent the throw, defender does uchi maki komi with the reap.
- Uke tries osoto gari but does not have weight
fully on the leg, toristeps and ends up behind uke)
then does morote gari
- Attacker tries to do okuri ashi bari but does not off
balance -- this makes tori
take a step. Tori counters by turning with the throw and doing harai goshi
Ukemi:aerial practice: with
partner holding a jo, (otoshi drill) grab partner's
lapel, pick up feet and do a side tap. Partner must practice drop so
as not to get pulled over face first, you get to practice landing from
chest level with a controlled fall (exercise for side fall = yoko sutemi).
Atemi: getting into shodan
wrist bend from a punch (or grab)
- Attacker punches, defender puts him into a wrist bend and
demonstrates ability to use it as a come-along or throws to rear with
it and pins to floor.
- Uke does a finger
choke, driving forward. Tori
turns and does sode tsurikomi goshi.
Flow drills:filling drills,
passing the arm drills, 8 direction hip throws, shove drill and land
Pins:shodan wrist bend
- Against reverse headlock (aka guillotine) grab uke's leg and fall to side,
executing a kata garuma.
- Tori against wall, uke pummeling. Drop to one knee,
elbow shot to uke's leg on
the way down wrap and do ko uchi
Kata:ushiro zeme otoshi
- sumi gaeshi (corner turn out two versions the close-in
head wrap and off a foot pin),
- yoko wakare (side split)
- hara garuma aka tomoe nage (stomach throw)
- yoko garuma (side wheel)
- kibisu gaeshi (knee turn-out also with the sit down
- gyaku koshi nage (cross-body hip throws)
- sutemi koshi nage versions of all basic hip throws
- osoto gari + yoko wakare
- ippon seoi nage + yoko garuma
Ukemi:do a side tap over a
kneeling partner (grab underneath) and from an o goshi
Atemi: inside set. Defenses from
behind. Blocking double punches.
- Attacker does a karate style front kick, counter with ashi
kannuki then turnover.
- Attacker throw straight punch. Standard parry and do a cross-body
throw. Optionally add a footpin in the middle.
Flow drills:passing the arm,
walking circle. 8 direction hip throws with body crossing
Pins:Floor sequence (5 pins). Pinning the legs of a downed
attacker by kneeling on them (basic plus variation).
Self-defense:Against a tackle
(sumi gaeshi), against a "rhino". Hip throws
keeping away from the defender's free arm, immoblizing it.
Stack the mats: Hip throw where uke grabs and tries hard to
pull you over.
You drop staying under his center of gravity and do a full sutemi,
Uke should remember that at some point he must let go with one
hand to tap!
the arm as a stick to control
Kata: mune osae dori,
ude osae dori (kneeling and standing)
- hasami otoshi (scissor drop)
- waki gatame takedown (side of body armbar)
- ashi dori (grabbing the leg to assist in throwing)
- juji gatame nage (crossing the arms throw, also as a hip
- kubi gari (arm bar + sweep head with leg).
- hiji otoshi #2, pin
upper arm to side of body + sutemi (good if
you start an armbar and the attacker manages to retrieve his arm).
- ippon seoi nage + ankle bite
- ko uchi gari + ankle bite
- sweep with ko uchi gari grab leg then ashi dori(keep
hold of leg)+ o uchi gari
- ko soto gari grab leg and repeat the throw against the
combinations, rollouts as escapes from an armbar.
Atemi: ankle bites, armbreak
sequence (Off haymakers except the last which is off a straight punch):
- as a wrap (so defender wraps and does an upper cut)
- using an elbow strike
- (attacker is bent over) using a knee
- across the chest
- pump handle
- across the side of the body (attacker must bend elbow at the
Flow drills: drills leading to
an arm bar, dropping punch, pulls and pushes into throws, side of body
arm break flow
- attacker grabs wrist and attempts some technique. defender
thwarts it with shodan osae dori knees to ribs, if defender is
still up, steps between defender's legs and drops the arm straight
down, badly twisting the attacker
- attacker does a hook punch or high tackle, defender does a
dropping low punch
then either kibisu gaeshi or sukui nage (depends on which of the
attacker's legs he gets to). Defender should either extract away
from the legs or shiko right
up the middle, smothering the attacker at every turn
- attacker does a straight punch, defender goes into a side of body
armbar (waki gatame) and pins
attacker. Defender extracts himself using shodan to wrist and the floor pin
in the kata.
- does a grab from the rear plus a punch, if defender turn to
outside, he does turning side of body break, followed by a take down.
If to attacker's inside, same but do the break as a wrap.
Self-defense: Escapes from floor
fighting situations. Dropping to one knee while
being counter grabbed as part of a throw. Escapes from juji gatame,
using hasami otoshi against
a bad armbar.
Principles:shodan osae dori -
using a limb as a stick to throw
- armbar turnover using bodyweight + shodan osae dori
- Waki gatame (includes takedown)
- juji gatame, prone and kneeling version
- ude kannuki, opponent standing and prone turnover using
armbar against shin, defender standing or kneeling.
- On stomach leg pin ("Boston crab") with turnover.
- Turnover and immobilizing in shodan osae dori using gakun
grip against opponent's wrist.
- Standing ude garami pin with the feet if prone opponent
attempts to turn on side to escape from armbar pin.
Kata:uchi komi dori,
(standing and kneeling), kubi jime dori
uke from his center
- hiji nage (same-side armbar throw, like uchi komi dori)
- gyakuhiji nage (crossing the body armbar throw, like kubi
- ashi kannuki (legbar throw)
Taisabaki:walking circle doing
uchi komi dori opening. crowding
Atemi: Hook punches, blocking
hook punches with elbows. Backfist.
Flow drills: drills involving
trapping the arm or leg to throw and clearing the arm. Ankle bites (ko
soto/uchi ashi kubi jime).
The throwing drill for shodan osae dori.
- Attacker does a karate style straight punch (outside
parry) and backfist. Defender counters with uchi komi dori.
- Attacker does a straight punch which is parried to the outside.
Defender steps deep between attacker's legs and does an elbow shot to
the armpit. A twist of the hips throws in uchi komi dori.
- Attacker throws a flurry of punches. Defender shells up then does
a elbow show to the attacker's hip followed by a grab with the other
hand to the ankle. This effects uchi komi dori on the leg. This
ends with a stomp or kick to the attacker's ungrappled leg to disable.
Variations allow for a footpin to the other leg, but be careful when
throwing since it's easy to get too much torque on the knee.
- Attacker does a low knife slash. Defender parries to outside and
collars arm, throwing in gyaku hiji nage and finishes with the
overhead pin of ude gatame, standing on the hand and kneeling
on the elbow.
Pins: pin in uchi komi dori,
leg and armbar pin (off morote gari). Turn an attacker
who is on his back over by using an armbar against your leg while you
execute a kaiten.
Self-defense: Basic knife
Kata:yoko katate osae dori,
kiza morote yoko katate osae dori
- niho nage (two direction throw) also as a drop and as a
- te garuma (hand wheel)
- ushiro goshi (rear hip throw)
- soto/uchi irimi nage (entering throw do with and without
- start gyaku hiji nage
attacker attempts to counter by bending his arm. Do niho nage.
- start niho nage. The
attacker tried to counter by stiff-arming you. Do gyaku hiji nage.
- off a pumphandle break, duck under the arm and do niho nage.
- niho nage dropping to
one knee beside the attacker and executing like a kata garuma. Also can be done
across back like standing kata garuma
with caution (get into position, do not
complete throw, just let ukue
slide down your back.)
- Against harai goshi/o soto gari use te garuma, also
against a front kick. A reverse te
garuma from between the arms.
- hip throw countered by ushiro goshi
- against a sasae tsuri komi ashi,
do soto irimi nage
- against ushiro goshi do
uchi irimi nage (a leg grab helps).
Key is to get below uke's
hips and rock him back on his heels.
- against soto irimi nage:
turn into the throw, grab the arm and do ippon seoi nage.
Ukemi:Rolling along the circle with combinations.
Atemi:Uppercuts/horizontal elbows, hammerfist (in place of metsubushi)
Flow drills: Drills involving
hooking the elbow, wrist, head and neck. Endless niho nage.
Five strikes drill. In basic flow drill, replace slaps with elbow shots
to attacker's hands and arms, hooking with other hand.
- attacker throws an uppercut, defender parries outside, grabs the
fist, pinning it to the body and does niho nage by turning the
body away from the attacker
- ditto, except the parry is to the inside, grabs the fist (at this
point, a quick jab to the attacker's face while holding onto his fist
is a good thing) and the defender does konoha gaeshi
- attacker throws haymaker, defender bats it down and ducks under
arm to do either niho nage or te kagami, depending on
whether the pinkie or thumb side of the hand is controlled.
- attacker throws a straight punch, defender parries to outside,
strikes with a palm heel then turns back inside to throw in niho
nage with the attacker's arm in a figure 4 lock. This can also be
done from between the attacker's arms with a hakko zeme and a
- against a straight punch, parry to outside, extend block and
double smack on return, continue into a kidney shot then wrap up the
defender's arm, rise up and do soto irimi nage (Note this was
combo which ended in o soto gari)
- against a straight punch, parry on the outside then collar arm
start the attacker moving forward with an armbar (so this is similar to
an earlier te kagami),
almost immediately and, do soto irimi nage, optionally with a
- against some attack where you end up between the attacker's arms,
do a vertical ellbow to the stomach then uppercut to the face and do uchi
- Double shoulder grab, turn 90 degrees ducking under one of uke's arms and do uchi irimi nage. Also same off a
lapel grab starting with a maki komi
to the arm.
Pins:straight-armed niho nage
pin, with and without foot, smear face elbow pin (hiji gatame)
10 henka for each principle.
The test is to show that you have
figured out how to adapt the principles to your specific body type,
character and situation.